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E163 Anthocyan(in)s

E163a cyanidin
E163b delphinidin
E163c malvidin
E163d pelargonidin
E163e peonidin
E163f petunidin
E163(i) grape peel extract
E163(ii) anthocyan mixture
E163(iii) black current extract

Anthocyanins and anthocyanidins are a large group of natural colours. The colour of most fruits, flowers and berries is made up from a combination of anthocyanins and anthocyanidins. Anthocyanins always contain a carbohydrate molecule, whereas anthocyanidins lack this molecule. The individual compounds are isolated from different plant species. E163(i)-(iii) are mixtures. More on anthocyanins and structure, see here.

Function & characteristics:
E163a cyanidin : red
E163b delphinidin : blue
E163c malvidin : purple
E164d pelargonidin : orange
E164e peonidin : red-brown
E165f petunidin : dark red

Widely used, but the colours are rather unstable. Temperature, light and pH can influence the colour.

Daily intake:
None determined except for E163(ii) : up to 2.5 mg/kg body weight

Side effects :
No side effects known.

Dietary restrictions :
None, all compounds can be consumed by vegans and vegetarians and all religious groups except Jews, as these products my be derived from grapes. is an initiative of Stichting Food-Info, The Netherlands

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